Cannabinoids, Terpenes and Flavonoids
- Endocannabinoids are present in every one of us.
- Cannabinoids interact with the Endocannabinoid system
- Terpenes and Flavonoids are found in a wide range of plants
- The ratio of Cannabinoids and Terpenes can affect people differently.
- Medical Cannabis is a uniquley personalised medicine
Phytocannabinoids are Cannabinoids produce in Plants
THC is usually the most common Cannabinoid in medical Cannabis
THC has a wide range of short-term effects which some patients experience while others don’t. It depends on the individual and their unique ECS . This may mean that some patients find THC creates a feeling of calm and peace. But others may notice an increase in their anxiety levels. The difference can be as simple the mood the patient is in and how they react. Cannabis Cultivars (strains) have varying concentrations of cannabinoids and particular THC which can affect people in very different ways.
THC is very psychoactive and the effects, can include (but not limited to) euphoria, relaxation, introspection, creativity, sedation, sensory alteration, appetite stimulation, focus and energy.
The adverse effects may include dry mouth, redness in the eyes, visual disorientations, dizziness, racing heart, anxiety and paranoia.
THC has a variety of designations as Delta 9 or Delta 8 that have related but different chemical compounds that have medicinal potential and have been studied for a number of aliments. These can include pain relief, anti-inflammation, autoimmune disorders, spasticity, insomnia, nausea, depression and anxiety. Research is containing and will reveal a wealth of possibilities.
CBD has become widely recognized for its incredible versatility in the treatment of a variety of different medical conditions. Second only to THC in abundance (generally), CBD stands out for its non-intoxicating relief, including the ability to counteract the psychoactive effects of THC!
CBD has been shown to provide a wide range of medical benefits including for anxiety, inflammation, pains, and seizures. CBD initially gained widespread recognition for its powerful anti-convulsant properties, creating a huge spike in use for treatment in epileptic patients including children.
In addition to being a powerful anti-convulsant, CBD also has shown neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties and has been used in the treatment of conditions such as depression, anxiety, addiction, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer.
CBD also has a unique ability to target a specific serotonin receptor that has promising applications for disorders including opioid dependence, neuropathic pain, depression and anxiety disorders, nausea and vomiting (especially from chemotherapy), and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
Discovered over 50 years ago, CBC is considered one of the “big six” cannabinoids prominent in medical research. It doesn’t get as much attention, but CBC’s benefits are extremely promising.
Cannabichromene (CBC) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid with a host of potential therapeutic applications. CBC may carry pain relieving properties, act as a potent anti-inflammatory agent, assist with digestive and gastrointestinal disorders, possess antibacterial and antifungal efficacy, and could potentially contribute to the regeneration of brain cells, which possibly has implications in the treatments of multiple sclerosis, fibromyalgia, dementia, Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative related conditions.
Cannabichromene may be a powerful cancer fighter, and the reason might be its interaction with the body’s natural endocannabinoid, anandamide. CBC also appears to inhibit the uptake of anandamide, allowing it to remain longer in the bloodstream. So far, research has found CBC to be the second-most-potent cannabinoid at inhibiting the growth of new cancer cells (CBG was the most potent).
Cannabichromene has been shown to block pain and inflammation associated with collagen-induced osteoarthritis. Cannabinoids like CBC act on inflammation differently than non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) do, and don’t have the side effects of these medications.
In a 2013 study, CBC had a positive effect on neural stem progenitor cells (NSPCs), a cell essential to healthy brain function. This shows promise because NSPCs differentiate into astroglial cells, the most important cells for maintaining brain homeostasis. Astroglia counteract many of the issues that create neurological diseases and brain pathologies like Alzheimer’s disease.
In another amazing display of the entourage effect, CBC appears to work in conjunction with both THC and CBD to deliver a trifecta of antidepressant properties!
A lesser-known cannabinoid called cannabigerol (CBG), while not present in large quantities in most strains, is nonetheless worth learning about for a number of reasons.
CBG is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid, meaning it doesn’t produce the “highs” that are synonymous with THC. Because it is present in low levels (usually less than 1%) in most cannabis strains, CBG is considered a minor cannabinoid. Amazingly, however, THC and CBD start out as CBG— it’s the chemical parent of THC and CBD!
CBG displays a multitude of potential health benefits including working as a neuroprotectant, having antioxidant properties, aiding with skin ailments as an antibacterial and antifungal agent, appetite stimulation, treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, inflammation reduction, shows promise in fighting cancer, and lowering intraocular pressure, which may benefit glaucoma patients.
CBG has been found to act on very specific physiological systems and problems, and results for medicinal use are promising:
CBG is thought to be particularly effective in treating glaucoma because it reduces intraocular pressure. It is a powerful vasodilator and has neuroprotective effects to boot.
CBG was found to be effective in decreasing the inflammation characteristic of inflammatory bowel disease.
CBG was shown to protect neurons in mice with Huntington’s disease.
CBG is showing great promise as a cancer fighter. Specifically, CBG was shown to block receptors that cause cancer cell growth. CBG inhibited tumors and chemically-induced colon carcinogenesis.
Researchers showed that CBG was a very effective appetite stimulant in rats.
Scientists are excited about these initial CBG results and are promoting future research with CBG. Because it is non-psychotropic, CBG has a promising wide range of potential applications not only for the problems mentioned above, but also as an analgesic, therapy for psoriasis, and as an antidepressant.
Receptors are found concentrated in the pancreas and the intestinal tract.
As its name suggests, Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) is similar to THC in molecular structure and psychoactive properties, but it provides a variety of pronounced and altogether different effects. THCV is a cannabinoid that holds potentially potent psychoactive effects, along with a host of medicinal benefits.
THCV is thought to act as an antagonist to some of the effects of THC when found in small amounts, while possibly accentuating them in higher doses. Strains or products rich in THCV may result in a stimulating, clear headed, almost psychedelic type of energetic high that is typically shorter in duration.
Most strains only contain trace, undetectable amounts of THCV, making it difficult to achieve the desired therapeutic effect. In contrast to THC, THCV is an appetite suppressant. THCV has promise as a possible weight loss supplement but should, however, be avoided by patients treating appetite loss or anorexia.
THCV may also play a role in stimulating bone health, which could help osteoporosis. THCV also displays anticonvulsant properties that may help with spasticity, neurodegenerative, and seizure related disorders. THCV may combat anxiety and panic attacks, with potential use for those who suffer from PTSD. In addition, THCV is also considered an antioxidant and potent anti-inflammatory agent.
Research shows promise in THCV’s ability to regulate blood sugar levels and reduce insulin resistance, showing promise in helping diabetic patients. THCV may help with Alzheimer’s, including tremors, motor control, and brain lesions associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Furthermore, THCV is being looked at for osteoporosis and other bone-related conditions as THCV stimulates bone growth and promotes the growth of new bone cells.
has been shown to be more effective when combined with other terpenes, including alpha-pinene and myrcene. Ocimene has been shown to be antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-oxidative, and have antiseptic effects.